Week 2 Relfections

October 21, 2010

Spend some time reflecting on what we have learned so far:

– Measuring Health Status (the role of epidemiology and measures of epidmiology)

– Identifying Priority Health Issues

Add your thoughts as a comment on this post. Consider things like:

– what have you learned this week?
– did anything stand out?
– what are the most important things that we should all understand?

– are there things that you still don’t understand?
– how can/should we respond to this?



Long Jump Analysis

September 8, 2010

The major bones, muscles, joints and joint actions involved

Major Bones:

–    Femur –    Fibula –    Tibia –    Vertebra –    Metatarsals –    Phalanges –    Ulna –    Radius –    Humerus


–    Gastrocnemius –    Glutes –    Quadriceps –    Hamstrings –    Biceps –    Deltoids  –    Triceps –    Trapezius –    Latissimus Dorsi –    Quadriceps –    Abdominals


–    Ball and Socket joint of the elbow, hip and shoulder –    Hinge joint of the elbow and patella and toes –    Synovial and condyloid joint of the ankle

Joint Actions:

–    Flexion and extension of the arms and legs from running action. Also extension of the legs while in the air and flexion after landing. –    Plantar flexion as a result of pushing off the ground to jump –    Abduction when the arms move away from the body to stay balanced for the jump

The physical fitness components required to optimize performance

–    Flexibility: this is an important factor as it allows one to take large strides while running and increases the size of the leap that is required to jump as far as possible. It is also important to avoid injuring or tearing a muscle when taking of or landing.

–    Speed: this component determines the distance of the jump because it contributes to the amount of time one has when in the air which covers distance.

–    Power: this is needed for acceleration, take off power and reactive power. Power will allow one to be able to jump further when taking off after the sprint.

–    Muscular Strength: Athletic performance depends either directly or indirectly on qualities of muscular strength. The stronger your muscles and the more forceful the contractions are in relationship to your own body weight, the faster you will run and the further you will jump. It is also important to avoid injury.

–    Cardiovascular fitness: This is an overall beneficial component that allows one to train for long jump at a high level. It results in better sprint training and lower levels of fatigue.

Methods of assessing the components of fitness identified to optimise performance

Measuring Flexibility: The sit and reach test. To measure this, the person needs to stretch their hamstrings so that they can measure their flexibility with a tape measure after sitting and stretching over the testing box. Excellent for male is 10cm and excellent for female is 15cm.

Measuring Speed: One can use light gates or stopwatches to measure the time taken to cover a short distance. For long jump, the test needs to be done on foot (i.e. not swimming), and can be measured as a 20-50 metre sprint. For a 50 metre sprint excellent for male is 7.6 seconds, and female 8.1 seconds.

Measuring Power: The standing long jump test. The person must stand with toes behind a mark on the ground with feet slightly apart. Without taking a step, the person must then jump forward as far a possible, landing on both feet. They can swing their arms to help gain momentum and the distance is measured from where the person’s heels land.

Measuring muscular strength: The squat test. The subject must squat against a wall with hands on hips. The average time is about 30 seconds.

Measuring cardiovascular fitness: The beep test. This is a program that measures one’s fitness through a program called the beep test. There are 23 levels but the top result for an elite athlete should be about level 19.

Motion: There are various headings that come under motion such as; linear and projectile motion, speed and velocity, acceleration and inertia, momentum and performance in running technique.

Linear and projectile motion– Linear motion takes place in a straight line, and projectile motion is the path that the subject moves in the air without having a propulsion system. These motions are important in long jump once a person has pushed off the surface to jump into the sand pit. The aim is for the person to project themselves in a straight line and stay in a straight line to gain as much distance as possible.

Speed and Velocity– This is the rate at which a body moves from one location to another. The run up in long jump requires a lot of speed because the person needs to cover as much distance as they can after jumping. The velocity just calculates how much distance the subject covers during and after the ruin up.

Acceleration and Inertia– Acceleration is defined as the rate at which velocity changes with respect to time. For long jump, acceleration isn’t the most important thing as one usually gathers speed in a gradual way for the run up. However the subject does need to have a good start, and also needs to be able to accelerate well for the jump.

Momentum– This is the product of mass and velocity. The more speed a person gains from the run up, the more momentum they will have for the jump. Hence one needs to gain as much momentum as possible while sprinting to be able to jump far. This is very important in long jump because momentum produces a larger jump.

Performance in running technique – This is very important for long jump because good running technique means that the subject doesn’t have to waste extra energy on keeping the body facing the front, and will result in a bigger and more technical jump. When running up to the sand pit, the person usually takes large and fast strides to gain momentum and speed for the jump. Rhythm is important to get the speed and accuracy right. Running technique helps to produce the right speed and power to be able to jump well.

Force: This can be defined as a pushing or pulling action that causes a change of the state of a body. A long jumper who wants to increase their degree of force will need to increase their weight, but this can negatively affect their speed, so it is vital to get the balance right.

Applying force during take-off in long jump– This is an important part of long jump and requires a great amount of skill, which can be developed through practise. When taking off, the person needs to ensure that their hips are slightly forward of their shoulders.  To prepare for the take off in long jump, the person needs to sink their hips and then raise their hips into the take-off phase. As a result of this, the second last stride is usually longer than normal and the final stride ends up being about 20cm shorter than their normal running stride. The take-off foot needs to be slightly in front of the hips when it reaches the board to prepare for take-off. The final two-foot supporters in the take-off should be flat contacts. Vertical height is achieved by the upwards explosive acceleration of the arms and the leg that isn’t taking off. This technique is vital for force to be at its most effective.

Absorbing force– Landing is just as important in long jump because it is easy to get injured if the force isn’t absorbed properly. When the feet get in contact with the floor, it should be on the balls of the feet, followed by the bending of the ankles, knees and hips. Arms should be stretched behind the body to compensate for the weight of the legs that are stretched out in front.

Balance and stability: There are two types of balance; static balance which is when a person remains over a somewhat fixed base, and dynamic balance which is when a performer is in motion. Stability relates to the degree to which a body resists being upset or moved.  Balance is highly important in long jump. It is needed at the time of the launch so the body position and center of mass is at the proper point for maximum distance. Also, it is needed during flight to keep the center of gravity in the correct position above the legs. Balance is also needed during the landing so that the moment carries the jumper forward. If the center of gravity is in the wrong position, the jumper will fall backwards taking away distance that could have given him the better jump.



Long Jump Analysis

September 8, 2010

Long jump can be broken down into two parts: sprinting and jumping. Sprinting consists of two phases, the driving phase when the leg is in contact with the ground, and the recovery phase. The major bones involved in both phases consist of the hip; the femur and pelvic girdle which forms a ball and socket joint, the knee; the femur and tibia which forms a hinge joint, and the ankle; the tibia and calcaneus which forms a modified joint. The muscles and joint actions during the driving phase of the hip consist of the Gluteal group and the joint actions of extension and hyperextension. The knee uses the Quadricep group of muscles in the extension joint action, and the ankle uses the Gastrocnemius and a plantar flexion. The recovery phase of the hip uses the Iliopsoas and flexion, the knee uses the hamstrings and flexion, and the ankle uses the Tibialis Anterior and the Dorsi flexion.

The jumping movement in long jump is much the same as sprinting and also involves the hip knee and ankle. The bones of the hip involved are the femur and the pelvic girdle with a ball and socket joint, the knee involves the femur and tibia and a hinge joint, and the ankle involves the tibia and calcaneus and a modified joint. The hip also uses the Gluteal muscle group with extension and hyperextension joint actions, as the knee uses the quadriceps group in extension, and the ankle using the gastrocnemius in plantar flexion. Before landing, the legs adduct and the feet should land next to one another.

Whilst the lower half of the body seems to generate the movement in long jump, the upper body is also important and utilised. When running, the support muscles are the biceps and upper & lower abdominals. When jumping off the board in the ‘execution phase’ the biceps and deltoids are the major muscles used with the ball and socket joint, with extension of both arms and legs whilst in the flight phase.

The physical fitness components required to optimise performance

Long jump can be divided into four phases: the approach run (or run up), takeoff, flight and landing and each require many fitness components, however each focuses on a primary component. The approach run consists of the Speed fitness component, as this is essential in order to execute a good jump. It has been researched and found that the approach speed has been found to be one of the most influential factors influencing the jump distance. Power is important in the takeoff, as it needs to be explosive and fast. Balance is required in the flight phase, because without good balance, it is impossible to be in position for excellent landing. Muscular Strength and Flexibility are also important as they help protect the body; strength allows the athlete to control and change the direction of the athlete’s centre of mass and flexibility helps the athlete avoid destroying the muscle, connective tissue and joints while competing.

Methods of assessing the components of fitness identified to optimise performance
Speed: can be measured by a 50-metre sprint. An excellent time for a male is under 7.6 seconds and under 8.1 seconds for a female. The sprint test is a good test for long jump as it is an essential component needed in order to execute the jump at high speed.
The ‘Ten Stride Test’ is also a good indicator of speed as it works to monitor an athlete’s ability to generate efficient acceleration from a standing start. It works by completing 6x20m runs from a standing start (with appropriate recovery between each) in which the individual measures the time and distance covered within ten strides. It is expected that the distance within ten strides should increase if the individual does relevant training.
Power: can be measured by the ‘standing long jump’ or ‘vertical jump’ test. An excellent result for males in the standing long just test is over 2.5 metres, and over 2 metres for females, and over 65cm for males and over 58cm for females in the vertical jump test. Power is essential in long jump, as the competitor needs to exert a maximum force in the shortest time possible in order to optimise performance.
Balance: can be tested by the ‘stork stand’ test. An excellent reading for both males and females is over 50 seconds. Balance is most essential in the ‘flight’ stage of long jump in order to gain the longest distance possible from takeoff to landing by gliding smoothly and in one forward direction in the air.
Muscular Strength: can be measured by the ‘Leg Strength Test’ in which an area of 25 metres is marked out by cones in a straight line. The individual starts jogging ten metres before the first cone, and then proceeds to hop on the dominant leg until they reach the end cone. The time taken to do this is recorded and it is expected that after appropriate training, results should improve.
Flexibility: can be measured by completing the ‘sit and reach’ test. An excellent reading for males would be over 10cm, and over 15cm for females. Flexibility is necessary, as it is important in enabling the competitor to reach maximum speed and power levels, as well as helping the athlete protect their joints, connective tissue and muscle.

By testing these fitness components used in long jump, we can determine weaknesses and ways in which we can improve in order to optimise performance and gain better results.

Motion is very important in long jump as it accounts for much of the length in which the individual can jump. The approach run in long jump is vital to generate the maximum amount of speech, which can be effectively converted into a jump. Therefore, acceleration is also important, but should be gradual, rhythmic and controlled in order to complete an excellent jump. Momentum is also important, particularly angular momentum as the runner should be creating this as one arm moves forward, and the other backward, with the legs doing the same. This process can create maximum speed with as little energy as possible being used. Furthermore, momentum is necessary in the ‘takeoff’ and ‘flight’ stage of the jump as the individual should be aiming to jump as high as they can, to allow momentum to carry them forward. The higher you jump, the longer you are in the air, the longer your momentum can carry you forward, hence the longer your jump ends up being. Momentum of the arms and legs in flight is also important as by swinging them forward, this creates further momentum. Horizontal velocity is also needed in order to perform a jump to an individual’s maximum potential. The data at the Seoul Olympics in 1988 was collected, which showed that the men and women who gained the best results did not have a drop off in velocity in the last 11 metres, but it in fact increased. In addition, the two athletes with the largest velocity decreases resulted in a foul and a poor jump.
By understanding the importance of motion in long jump, the competitor can improve their performance by working on speed, acceleration and momentum. 1. For example, by understanding the necessity for momentum, particularly in the takeoff and flight stage of long jump, an athlete can practice this skill to improve their performance. As you plant your foot on the board after the approach run, by bending the knee and driving upwards with the other knee, as well as rotating the arms back and around, this can help increase your momentum, furthering the length of your jump. In addition, by swinging the arms forward as the individuals’ heels touch the ground, this also creates momentum to ensure the individual does not fall backwards, which would shorten their jump.

Hitch Kick

Stride Jump

Hang Style

The above figures demonstrate the three different jump styles in long jump. From these demonstrations, we can observe how the momentum created within the arms and legs is necessary in order for the athlete to jump the greatest distance possible.
Force: is important in long jump as applying force allows the individual to enhance their performance. It is particularly necessary in the take-off stage of long jump as the individual applies force to the board with their body, in order to push off it and increase the height and length of their jump. The athlete also absorbs force as they land by bending their knees, ankles and hips. 2. For example, as the individual approaches the take-off board, they prepare by initially sinking and then raising their hips into the take-off phase. This generally affects the penultimate stride, which becomes longer than normal, and then the last stride, which becomes about 20cm shorter than normal. At this point, the athlete’s hips are slightly in front of their shoulders. As the take-off foot strikes the board, it is slightly in front of the athlete’s hips and is flat in contact with the board in order to apply maximum force.

Balance and Stability: are important in long jump in order to execute an excellent jump. On the approach run phase, the athlete’s centre of gravity is around mid-waist height, but becomes higher as they jump up into the air. They should then aim for a low position as they fall, so the centre of gravity with the feet horizontally ahead. Whilst running, the feet should also come in contact with the ground initially in front of the centre of mass to ensure stability. As the athlete prepares for takeoff, balance is required so that they can position their body and centre of mass at the correct point to reach maximum distance. Balance is also necessary during flight so the centre of gravity is above the legs, as well as during the landing so that momentum can carry the jumper forward. The athlete’s line of gravity in the approach run should be shifted forward, as they should be leaning slightly forward in order to maintain balance. As they are in the flight stage, it will be slightly back, and then come forward as they bring up their legs and gain momentum. 3. An example to improve an athlete’s performance includes the centre of gravity, which needs to be lowered in the penultimate stride. This will hence alter the path of acceleration to a more vertical flight, creating stronger vertical force. Therefore, the take-off phase of the long jump can be improved, as long as there are no horizontal velocity losses in the meantime.



Assessment 3 Videos

July 28, 2010

Hammer Throw

Long Jump

1 1/2 forward somersault of 3m diving board

Baseball Pitch

Golf Swing


11PDHPE Fitness Test Results

July 22, 2010

To enter your fitness testing results – click here

To view the class results – click here


Purpose and benefits of testing physical fitness

July 15, 2010

Click on the image below to take you to the presentation summary for the ‘Purpose and Benefits of testing Physical Fitness”

Use this as your summary and add any details or examples that you can think of.


Fitness and performance

July 15, 2010

Please comment on the following statement using the feedback option below:

“Fitness is a predictor of performance”

Discuss by assessing whether you think that fitness is a predictor of performance or not and giving your reasons why or why not.